Monthly Archives: March 2019

Numbness of feet in Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetes can be harmful for nerves and may cause nerve damage. This condition is known as peripheral neuropathy or diabetic neuropathy. Nerves, on the other hand, are specialized form of tissues in brain that conduct messages from brain to other parts of body. Nerves play

Techniques for Cell immobilization

Cell immobilization

Introduction Cell immobilization is the process of encapsulation of cells in culture in some polymeric material to keep cells viable and useful for a longer duration for biochemical processes.  The matrix material traps or encapsulate the cells  so they cannot enter the mobile phase in

Mechanism of Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis

The rate of chemical reaction is enhanced by the enzymatic action on substrate molecule, a process named as enzyme catalysis. Enzyme catalysis is vital for certain biochemical reactions in cells as without the enzymatic actions the original rate of reaction is too low. Enzymes reduced

Symptoms of celiac disease

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder that mainly affects the cells of small intestine. Its association with other autoimmune diseases and in diabetes mellitus type 2 is also observed. The symptoms are those related to gastrointestinal problems. This disease occurs as permanent intestinal problem

Receptors for immune system

Receptors of immune system

Introduction Receptors for innate immune system are specialized proteins that recognize foreign particles and the pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, the innate immune system generate specific responses in response to these receptor proteins, either itself or by activating the cells of adaptive immune system. The innate immune

Enzyme specificity and mechanism of enzyme action

Enzyme specificity

Enzyme specificity describes the tendency of an enzyme to catalyze a specify biochemical reaction by binding to specific substrate. Enzymes are specific for the type of reaction that they catalyze. For example, the digestive enzymes break down the macromolecular food particle into small digestible particles.


Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Ab) are glycoprotein molecules produced by the plasma cells in response to immunogen that may be any foreign particle. These are called as immunoglobulins as they consist of globular proteins in their structure. Basic structure of immunoglobulin Each immunoglobulin molecule consists

Symptoms of postpartum depression

Postpartum depression

Having a baby, being a mother for the first time can trigger and jumble up powerful emotions in women, from joy, excitement to tension. And one more thing, which most of us don’t think that a women can have after having a baby, is postpartum

Sjogren's syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is an auto immune disorder and mainly affects the moisture-producing cells and glands of body. The disease is characterized by dry mouth, eyes, and skin and vaginal dryness. Numbness of muscles, gastric ulcer and joint pain and lymphoma are other symptoms. This disease

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Introduction Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a biotechnological technique which amplifies a  particular sequence of DNA and produces millions of copies of specific gene sequence. Kary Mullis developed this technique in 1938. The basic principle of this technique is that the DNA replicates itself with