Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune allergic disorders are common in people and are due to problem with immune system. Immune system is the major defense mechanism of body of organism comprising of specialized cells and systems that provide resistance to disease. The main function of immune system is protection of body by removal and elimination of pathogens and the toxin produced by them.

There are two basic types of immune system in humans:

  • Innate Immune System
  • Adaptive Or Acquired Immune System

Innate Immune System

This is the first line of defense and first one to get active when some pathogen attacks the host body. It can get active by some pathogen or some toxins. The body takes them as antigens. This type of response by innate immune system is of short duration. Moreover, this is less specialized system in terms of antigen recognition.

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Acquired Immune System

Activation of acquired immune system requires signals from the innate immune system. It provides long-term immunity to body and eliminate the pathogens by production of specialized antibodies.

Activation of immune system

Normally, when some antigen enters the body, innate immune system gets activated to kill that pathogen. Moreover, the dendritic cells of innate immune system act as antigen presenting cells APC and activate the T cells of adaptive immune system. Depending upon the type of antigen, T cells secret specific cytokines that activate B cells. These activated B cells provide long-term immunity by production of specific antibodies along with memory. The purpose is that whenever the same antigen enters the body, it can be quickly detected and removed by the immune system.

Mechanism of autoimmune disorders

Normally the self-reactive B & T cells are killed and phagocytosed or may become dormant (a process called anergy) by the body cells before these abnormal B and T cells get activated. But some may escape this controlling mechanism.

Active immune system or auto-reactive immune system is abnormal form of immune system in which the cells of immune system become auto-reactive, in such a way that they harm their own body’s cells. This leads to diseased conditions that can affect any part of body. The main symptoms of autoimmune diseases are of inflammation. Most of the autoimmune disorders are not only restricted to some specific part of body but also they spread to surrounding tissues. The actual causes of autoimmune disorders are unknown, but these factors can be genetic tendency and some other factors such as some viral infections to body that activate this type of immune response.

In some cases such infection by campylobacter jejuni, the cell surface molecules of invading pathogens are very similar to self molecules of body. Thus, the antibodies produced against these bacteria may also invade the skeleton muscles cells of body, a diseased condition termed as myasthenia gravis.

Any diseases have some specific symptoms associated with it that are due to activation of immune system. Similarly there are autoimmune disorders also have some specific symptoms.

what is Allergic disorder?

Activity of immune system due to some harmless particles results in allergy. These particles can be pollens, dust particles or some food particles as well. The symptoms of allergic reactions include eye and nasal symptoms, anaphylaxes, hives and asthma etc. Individuals with immune deficiency syndrome are at great risk of developing allergic reactions. The particles that create these allergic reactions are termed as allergens.

Pathological mechanism

In response to these allergens, the B cells of body produce Ige type of antibodies that bind to this allergen tightly. Then mast cells, basophiles, as well as eosinophils get activated and release histamine. Due to these chemical, inflammations occurs along with hives, sneezing and also other symptoms associated with allergy. Hey fever is an allergic disorder. Its cause is exposure to pollens in summer season.

Similarly, atopic dermatitis or eczema is skin infection. It becomes worse if the person have exposure to some other allergens. As the skin barrier breaks, it becomes dehydrated in these patients. Consequently, it leads to activation of immune system. Genetic susceptibility and other factors are linked with increased risks of developing eczema. Autosomal hyper Ige syndrome and IPEX is the allergic disorders are other examples of this type of allergic reaction.

Preventive measures

To prevent any possible incidence of getting autoimmune allergic reactions here are few steps to follow:

  • Check for any viral, bacterial infection with help of doctor.
  • Its good to check food for any type of allergens in it.
  • Use nutrients and vitamin supplements to help body and immune system.
  • Regular exercise and along with the balanced diet aid better adaptation of immune system to fight the infectious agents.

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