Category Archives: Biotechnology

Mechanism of epigenetic modifications

Epigenetics

Epigenetic modifications are stable heritable traits or phenotypes other than those which are based on genomic sequences. There are dynamic event that modulate the gene expression. These are functionally relevant changes and modifications of genome that excludes modifications of nucleotide sequences. For example, the mechanisms

bacterial transformation and selection of cells

Bacterial transformation and selection

Transformation is a basic technique of biotechnology to develop transformed cells (bacterial, plant or animal cell) containing a foreign DNA fragment in their genome. The foreign DNA incorporates in cellular genome in such a way that genes of foreign DNA express themselves. Therefore, the organism

The history of genetics

History of genetics

 The study of inheritance of traits from organism to its offspring and the way these traits are inherited is termed as genetics. It includes study of hereditary matter DNA, its genes and also the variations in genetic material of the organisms. The concept of evolution

Various types of Recombinant antibodies

Recombinant antibodies

The B cells of adapted immune system produces antibodies or immunoglobin molecules in response to foreign antigens. The emergence of recombinant DNA technology in 1970’s has led to the production of ‘engineered or recombinant’ antibodies (rAbs). Initially researchers tried their best for production of humanized

Significance of autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is the controlled digestion and degradation of damaged and old cell and its components. Form the Greek origin, “auto” mean “self” and “phagein” refers to “eat”. In the process, the cell can digest its own components by enclosing them in a membrane forming sac-like

BRCA gene mutation and links to breast cancer

BRCA gene

Gene is a particular sequence of nucleotide which codes for a protein product. BRCA gene is abbreviation for BReast CAncer gene. BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes have association with developments of breast cancer in humans. Both of BRCA gene prevent cancer development in normal

Genetic mutations and types

Genetic mutations

Genetic mutations are spontaneous changes occurring in the genetic material, (DNA) of an individual. Mutations can be passed to the next generations or may not, depending upon the type of cell in which they occur. They can be harmful, beneficial or even neutral. Usually these

Gene therapy for therapeutic purposes

Gene therapy

Gene therapy is technique of recombinant DNA technology which involves the replacement of faulty or mutated gene with normal one, mainly for the treatment purpose. DNA, as we know is the genetic and hereditary material of cell that determines and control the cellular functioning. Any

Techniques for Cell immobilization

Cell immobilization

Introduction Cell immobilization is the process of encapsulation of cells in culture in some polymeric material to keep cells viable and useful for a longer duration for biochemical processes.  The matrix material traps or encapsulate the cells  so they cannot enter the mobile phase in

Receptors for immune system

Receptors of immune system

Introduction Receptors for innate immune system are specialized proteins that recognize foreign particles and the pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, the innate immune system generate specific responses in response to these receptor proteins, either itself or by activating the cells of adaptive immune system. The innate immune